## Introduction to Java Bitwise Operators

In computer programming, bitwise operators play an integral role in manipulating individual bits that make up the data. These operators are used extensively in low-level programming of devices such as embedded systems and firmware.

The Java programming language provides a suite of bitwise operators that can be used in a variety of situations to perform bitwise operations on binary numbers. In this article, we will explore the basic concepts of Java bitwise operators and their usage with examples.

## Definition of Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators are operators that work on individual bits of a binary number. Each bitwise operator takes two or more operands that are binary numbers and performs a specific operation on them.

The Java programming language supports six bitwise operators, namely AND, OR, XOR, NOT, left-shift, and right-shift. These operators are represented by special symbols that are used to write expressions that carry out the desired operation.

## Usage of Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators are used in a wide range of applications in computer programming. One such application is Binary Indexed Tree (BIT) that is used to update and query large datasets efficiently.

A BIT is a data structure that can store sum queries on a set of data with individual updates in logarithmic time. The BIT is built on an array, and bitwise operators are used to manipulate the indices of the array that correspond to the elements in the input dataset.

## Bitwise OR Operator

The OR operator is a bitwise operator that is used to obtain a binary number, which has a 1 bit at positions where either or both bits of the operands are 1. The resulting binary number has a 0 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 0.

The OR operator is also known as the inclusive OR operator because it includes the bits from both operands in the result. Definition of

## Bitwise OR Operator

The OR operator in Java is denoted by the vertical bar symbol (|).

The operands are written on either side of the operator. The OR operator evaluates each bit of the operands and performs a logical OR operation between them.

The result of this operation is a binary number with a 1 bit in positions where either or both bits of the operands are 1 and a 0 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 0. Truth Table and Code Example for

## Bitwise OR Operator

A truth table is a graphical representation that defines the result of the operation carried out by the bitwise OR operator.

## The truth table for the OR operator is as follows:

| Operand 1 | Operand 2 | Result |

|———–|———–|——–|

| 0 | 0 | 0 |

| 0 | 1 | 1 |

| 1 | 0 | 1 |

| 1 | 1 | 1 |

To illustrate the usage of the bitwise OR operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = 5; // In binary: 0101

int c = a | b;

System.out.println(c);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15. The variable b is assigned the binary value 0101, which is equivalent to the decimal value 5.

The bitwise OR operator is used to compute the value of the variable c by taking the OR operation of the binary numbers a and b. The resulting binary number is 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15.

The output of the program is 15.

## Conclusion

The Java programming language provides a powerful set of bitwise operators for performing bitwise operations on binary numbers. The OR operator is one of the six bitwise operators supported by Java and is used to obtain a binary number that has a 1 bit at positions where either or both bits of the operands are 1.

The OR operator is useful in a wide range of applications such as Binary Indexed Trees that are used to update and query large datasets. By mastering the bitwise operators, programmers can write efficient and compact code that manipulates binary numbers with ease.

## Bitwise AND Operator

Another common bitwise operator used in Java is the AND operator. The AND operator is used to obtain a binary number that has a 1 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 1.

The resulting binary number has a 0 bit at positions where either or both bits of the operands are 0. Definition of

## Bitwise AND Operator

The AND operator in Java is denoted by the ampersand symbol (&).

The operands are written on either side of the operator. The AND operator evaluates each bit of the operands and performs a logical AND operation between them.

The result of this operation is a binary number with a 1 bit in positions where both bits of the operands are 1 and a 0 bit at positions where either or both bits of the operands are 0. Truth Table and Code Example for

## Bitwise AND Operator

A truth table is a graphical representation that defines the result of the operation carried out by the bitwise AND operator.

## The truth table for the AND operator is as follows:

| Operand 1 | Operand 2 | Result |

|———–|———–|——–|

| 0 | 0 | 0 |

| 0 | 1 | 0 |

| 1 | 0 | 0 |

| 1 | 1 | 1 |

To illustrate the usage of the bitwise AND operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = 5; // In binary: 0101

int c = a & b;

System.out.println(c);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15. The variable b is assigned the binary value 0101, which is equivalent to the decimal value 5.

The bitwise AND operator is used to compute the value of the variable c by taking the AND operation of the binary numbers a and b. The resulting binary number is 0101, which is equivalent to the decimal value 5.

The output of the program is 5.

## Bitwise XOR Operator

The XOR operator is another bitwise operator used in Java. The XOR operator is used to obtain a binary number that has a 1 bit at positions where exactly one of the bits of the operands is 1.

The resulting binary number has a 0 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 1 or both bits are 0. Definition of

## Bitwise XOR Operator

The XOR operator in Java is denoted by the caret symbol (^).

The operands are written on either side of the operator. The XOR operator evaluates each bit of the operands and performs a logical XOR operation between them.

The result of this operation is a binary number with a 1 bit in positions where exactly one of the bits of the operands is 1 and a 0 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 1 or both bits are 0. Truth Table and Code Example for

## Bitwise XOR Operator

A truth table is a graphical representation that defines the result of the operation carried out by the bitwise XOR operator.

## The truth table for the XOR operator is as follows:

| Operand 1 | Operand 2 | Result |

|———–|———–|——–|

| 0 | 0 | 0 |

| 0 | 1 | 1 |

| 1 | 0 | 1 |

| 1 | 1 | 0 |

To illustrate the usage of the bitwise XOR operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = 5; // In binary: 0101

int c = a ^ b;

System.out.println(c);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15. The variable b is assigned the binary value 0101, which is equivalent to the decimal value 5.

The bitwise XOR operator is used to compute the value of the variable c by taking the XOR operation of the binary numbers a and b. The resulting binary number is 1010, which is equivalent to the decimal value 10.

The output of the program is 10.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, bitwise operators are a powerful tool for manipulating individual bits of binary numbers. The bitwise AND operator is used to obtain a binary number that has a 1 bit at positions where both bits of the operands are 1.

The bitwise XOR operator is used to obtain a binary number that has a 1 bit at positions where exactly one of the bits of the operands is 1. By mastering these operators, programmers can write efficient and compact code that manipulates binary numbers with ease.

## Bitwise Complement Operator

The bitwise complement operator is a unary operator that inverts every bit of a binary number. The resulting binary number has a 1 bit in positions where the original number has a 0 bit and a 0 bit in positions where the original number has a 1 bit.

## Definition of

## Bitwise Complement Operator

The complement operator in Java is denoted by the tilde symbol (~) and operates on a single operand. The complement operator evaluates each bit of the operand and flips its value.

The result is a binary number with every bit of the original number flipped. Truth Table and Code Example for

## Bitwise Complement Operator

A truth table is not applicable for the bitwise complement operator as it acts on a single operand and flips every bit.

To illustrate the usage of the bitwise complement operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = ~a;

System.out.println(b);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15. The complement operator is used to compute the value of the variable b by flipping all the bits of the binary number a.

The resulting binary number is 0000, which is equivalent to the decimal value 0 with all bits switched. The output of the program is -16, which is the two’s complement representation of the binary number 11110000.

## Bitwise Shift Operator

The bitwise shift operator is used to shift the bits of a binary number to the left or right by a specified number of positions. The shifted bits are replaced with 0s or the sign bit depending on the type of shift operation.

## Definition of

## Bitwise Shift Operator

The shift operator in Java is denoted by the left angle bracket symbol (<<) for left shift and right angle bracket symbol (>>) for right shift. The operands are written on either side of the operator.

The shift operator evaluates each bit of the operand and performs a logical shift operation in the specified direction. The result of this operation is a binary number with shifted bits.

## Signed Right Shift Operator and Code Example

The signed right shift operator is used to shift the bits of a binary number to the right by a specified number of positions. The shifted bits are replaced with the sign bit of the original number.

This operator is also sometimes referred to as the arithmetic shift operator. To illustrate the usage of the signed right shift operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = a >> 2;

System.out.println(b);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15.

The signed right shift operator is used to shift the bits of the binary number a to the right by 2 positions. The shifted bits are replaced with the sign bit of the number, which is 1 in this case.

The resulting binary number is 0011, which is equivalent to the decimal value 3. The output of the program is 3.

## Signed Left Shift Operator and Code Example

The signed left shift operator is used to shift the bits of a binary number to the left by a specified number of positions. The shifted bits are replaced with 0s.

To illustrate the usage of the signed left shift operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = 15; // In binary: 1111

int b = a << 2;

System.out.println(b);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the binary value 1111, which is equivalent to the decimal value 15. The signed left shift operator is used to shift the bits of the binary number a to the left by 2 positions.

The shifted bits are replaced with 0s. The resulting binary number is 111100, which is equivalent to the decimal value 60.

The output of the program is 60.

## Unsigned Right Shift Operator and Code Example

The unsigned right shift operator is used to shift the bits of a binary number to the right by a specified number of positions. The shifted bits are replaced with 0s, even if the original number has a sign bit of 1.

To illustrate the usage of the unsigned right shift operator in Java, consider the following program:

int a = -15; // In binary: 11111111111111111111111111110001 (two’s complement)

int b = a >>> 2;

System.out.println(b);

In this program, the variable a is assigned the decimal value -15, which is equivalent to the binary value 11111111111111111111111111110001 in two’s complement representation. The unsigned right shift operator is used to shift the bits of the binary number a to the right by 2 positions.

The shifted bits are replaced with 0s, even though the original number has a sign bit of 1. The resulting binary number is 00111111111111111111111111111100, which is equivalent to the decimal value 1073741820.

The output of the program is 1073741820.

## Unsigned Left Shift Operator Explanation

Java does not have a specific operator for unsigned left shift. However, bitwise left shift in Java is effectively an unsigned left shift when dealing with positive integers.

This is because when a positive integer is shifted to the left, the sign bit remains 0, effectively behaving like an unsigned shift. However, this behavior does not extend to negative integers, which are subject to the rules of two’s complement representation.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, bitwise operators are a powerful tool for manipulating individual bits of binary numbers. The bitwise complement operator is a unary operator that inverts every bit of a binary number.

The bitwise shift operator is used to shift the bits of a binary number to the left or right by a specified number of positions. By mastering these operators, programmers can write efficient and compact code that manipulates binary numbers with ease.

In conclusion, Java bitwise operators provide a suite of powerful tools for manipulating individual bits of binary numbers. The bitwise operators discussed in this article, including the AND, OR, XOR, and bitwise complement operators, as well as the bitwise shift operator, are essential for low-level programming, and have applications in a wide range of programs.

By mastering these operators, programmers can write efficient and compact code that manipulates binary numbers with ease. It is important to remember to use these operators judiciously, as incorrect usage can lead to unexpected results.

In summary, understanding the bitwise operators is crucial for any Java programmer, and can lead to more efficient and effective code.