## Introduction to Edge Detection

Have you ever wondered how your eyes perceive the world? How you are able to distinguish a tree from a car or a person from an animal?

The human visual system is a powerful tool that can analyze complex scenes and identify objects with ease. However, when it comes to computers, this task is not as simple.

For machines to understand what they “see,” they rely on various algorithms, one of which is edge detection. Edge detection plays a vital role in image processing, especially in computer vision.

It is a technique used to locate the boundaries of objects and to distinguish them from the background. It is also an essential step in object recognition, where the goal is to categorize objects based on their features.

In this article, we will explore the different edge detection techniques and focus on one method in particular – the Sobel operator.

## Different Edge Detection Techniques

Before we delve into the Sobel operator, let’s have a look at the other commonly used edge detection techniques. – Canny method: This technique is considered to be the most popular and accurate method for detecting edges.

It involves smoothing the image to reduce noise, finding the gradient of the image, suppressing non-maximum edges, and applying hysteresis thresholding to detect strong and weak edges. – Prewitt method: This method uses two 3×3 convolution masks to detect edges – one for horizontal edges and one for vertical edges.

The masks are convolved with the image, and the resulting edge map is obtained by calculating the magnitude of the gradients. – Roberts method: This technique uses two 2×2 convolution masks to calculate the gradient in the x and y directions.

The resulting edge map is obtained by adding the absolute values of the horizontal and vertical gradients. – Fuzzy logic method: This method is based on fuzzy reasoning, where edges are defined as regions of high membership in the fuzzy set.

It involves computing the gradient, smoothing the image, and using a fuzzy membership function to detect edges.

## Understanding the Sobel Operator

The Sobel operator is a widely used edge detection method because of its simplicity and effectiveness. It was first introduced by Irwin Sobel and Gary Feldman in 1968 and is a discrete differentiation operator that approximates the gradient of an image.

## Definition and Working Principle

The Sobel-Feldman operator uses two convolution masks – one for detecting horizontal edges and one for detecting vertical edges. The horizontal mask detects changes in the x direction, while the vertical mask detects changes in the y direction.

The masks are convolved with the image to find the gradient in the x and y directions. The resulting gradient vectors are then combined to obtain the edge map.

## Computation and Gradient Approximation

## The computation of the Sobel operator can be broken down into three steps:

Step 1: Convolution

The first step is to convolve the image with the horizontal and vertical masks. The horizontal mask is given by:

## 1 2 1

## 0 0 0

-1 -2 -1

## The vertical mask is:

## 1 0 -1

## 2 0 -2

## 1 0 -1

The masks are convolved with the image using matrix multiplication. This results in two matrices – one for the horizontal gradient and one for the vertical gradient.

Step 2: Gradient Vector

The next step is to calculate the gradient vector for each pixel in the image. The gradient vector is a combination of the horizontal and vertical gradients and is given by:

G = sqrt(Gx^2 + Gy^2)

where Gx and Gy are the horizontal and vertical gradients, respectively.

Step 3: Gradient Direction

The final step is to calculate the gradient direction for each pixel. This is given by:

= tan^-1(Gy/Gx)

where is the gradient direction.

The gradient direction is essential for interpreting the edge map. It tells us the direction in which the edge is running.

A gradient direction of 0 degrees indicates a horizontal edge, while a direction of 90 degrees indicates a vertical edge.

## Conclusion

In conclusion, edge detection is a fundamental technique in computer vision that helps machines identify and analyze objects in images. The Sobel operator is one of the most commonly used edge detection techniques due to its simplicity and effectiveness.

It involves convolving the image with two masks to find the gradient in the x and y directions. The resulting gradient vectors are combined to obtain the edge map, which represents the boundaries of objects in the image.

By understanding these concepts, we can better appreciate the complexity of image processing and the remarkable capabilities of machines.

## Using the Sobel Operator for Image Edge Detection in MATLAB

MATLAB is a powerful tool for image processing that can be used for edge detection. The Sobel operator is one of the most commonly used methods for edge detection in MATLAB.

In this article, we will provide an example code for the Sobel method in MATLAB and explain how to obtain an edge detected image.

## Example Code for Sobel Method

The Sobel operator uses a 3×3 frame to detect edges. The horizontal and vertical edges of each pixel are detected using two convolution masks.

The horizontal mask detects changes in the x-direction, while the vertical mask detects changes in the y-direction. These masks are then convolved with the image to calculate the gradient in the x and y directions.

Finally, the resulting gradient vectors are combined to obtain the edge map. The following MATLAB code shows an example of the Sobel method for edge detection:

“`

% Load image.

img = imread(‘image.jpg’);

% Convert image to grayscale. gray_img = rgb2gray(img);

% Apply Sobel mask in the x-direction.

sobel_x = [-1 0 1; -2 0 2; -1 0 1];

grad_x = conv2(double(gray_img), sobel_x, ‘same’);

% Apply Sobel mask in the y-direction. sobel_y = [1 2 1; 0 0 0; -1 -2 -1];

grad_y = conv2(double(gray_img), sobel_y, ‘same’);

% Calculate the gradient of the image.

grad = sqrt(grad_x.^2 + grad_y.^2);

% Show the gradient map. figure, imshow(uint8(grad));

% Set a cutoff threshold level.

threshold = 50;

% Obtain the edge detected image. edge_detected_img = grad > threshold;

figure, imshow(edge_detected_img);

“`

In this code, we first load an image and convert it to grayscale.

We then apply the Sobel mask in the x and y directions using the `conv2` function. We calculate the gradient of the image using the `sqrt` function, and then show the gradient map using the `imshow` function.

## Obtaining Edge Detected Image

To obtain an edge detected image, we need to set a threshold level or cutoff. The threshold level determines which pixels in the gradient map should be considered as edges.

Pixels with a gradient value greater than the threshold level are considered as edges, while pixels with a gradient value less than the threshold level are considered as non-edges. In the example code above, we set a threshold level of 50 using the line `threshold = 50;`.

We then obtain the edge detected image using the line `edge_detected_img = grad > threshold;`. The resulting image will be a binary image where white pixels indicate edges and black pixels indicate non-edges.

## Explanation of Code

Let’s break down the code line by line:

“`% Load image. img = imread(‘image.jpg’);“`

Here, we load an image named `image.jpg` using the `imread` function and store it as a matrix named `img`.

“`% Convert image to grayscale. gray_img = rgb2gray(img);“`

In this line, we convert the loaded image `img` to grayscale using the `rgb2gray` function and store it as a matrix named `gray_img`.

“`% Apply Sobel mask in the x-direction. sobel_x = [-1 0 1; -2 0 2; -1 0 1];

grad_x = conv2(double(gray_img), sobel_x, ‘same’);“`

Here, we apply the Sobel mask in the x-direction using the matrix `sobel_x` and the `conv2` function.

We store the result in a matrix named `grad_x`. “`% Apply Sobel mask in the y-direction.

sobel_y = [1 2 1; 0 0 0; -1 -2 -1];

grad_y = conv2(double(gray_img), sobel_y, ‘same’);“`

Similarly, we apply the Sobel mask in the y-direction using the matrix `sobel_y` and the `conv2` function. We store the result in a matrix named `grad_y`.

“`% Calculate the gradient of the image. grad = sqrt(grad_x.^2 + grad_y.^2);“`

Here, we calculate the gradient of the image using the `sqrt` function by finding the square root of the sum of the squares of the gradient in the x and y directions.

The result is stored in a matrix named `grad`. “`% Show the gradient map.

figure, imshow(uint8(grad));“`

This line shows the gradient map as an image using the `imshow` function. “`% Set a cutoff threshold level.

threshold = 50;“`

Here, we set the threshold level or cutoff to 50. “`% Obtain the edge detected image.

edge_detected_img = grad > threshold;

figure, imshow(edge_detected_img);“`

Finally, we obtain the edge detected image by comparing the gradient matrix `grad` with the threshold level using the `>` operator. The resulting binary image is then shown using the `imshow` function.

## Conclusion

In summary, the Sobel operator is a widely used method for edge detection in MATLAB. It uses two convolution masks to detect changes in the x and y directions.

The resulting gradient vectors are then combined to obtain the edge map. By setting a threshold level or cutoff, we can obtain an edge detected image.

With this example code, you can now experiment with different images and thresholds to explore the world of image processing in MATLAB. In conclusion, edge detection through the Sobel operator is a vital technique in image processing.

By using MATLAB, we can apply the Sobel operator to an image to detect edges and obtain an edge detected image by setting the threshold level. The Sobel operator uses two convolution masks to calculate the gradient in the x and y directions, and by combining them, we can generate an edge map.

Understanding the techniques used in edge detection is critical for computer vision and object recognition. By using this example code, we can explore the world of image processing and continue to advance the capabilities of machines.